Introduction to kubernetes

                 Using this will automate the deployment, scaling, management of containerized applications and etc.
                It will create containers which will help to easy management and discovering applications as logical units.

                As its a cloud system, it can be accessible from anywhere. It will support on-premise, hybrid and public cloud infrastructure. It will reduce ops count for operations.


Automatic binpacking
Horizontal scaling
Service discovery and load balancing
Automated rollouts and rollbacks
Secret and configuration management
Storage orchestration
Batch execution

         We will help you to know the basic of kubernetes cluster system with background, concepts of kubernetes, Deploy a containerized application, Scale the deployment, Update and debug the applications.

Modules of Kubernetes:

1. Create a kubernetes cluster
2. Deploy a application
3. Explore your application
4. Explore your application publicly
5. Scale up your application
6. Update your application

Configuring syslogd in linux

Will see Configuring syslogd in Linux in this post

Follow the below steps on server:

Required services for syslogd

1. portmap
2 xinetd
3. syslog

Run the below command to keep on running above mentioned service after server reboot

#chkconfig portmap on
#chkconfig xinetd on
#chkconfig syslog on

Start portmap and xinetd services

#service portmap start
#service xinetd start

Check the service status

#service portmap status
#service xinetd status

Now edit “/etc/sysconfig/syslog” file using vi editor

#vi /etc/sysconfig/syslog

find for SYSLOGD_OPTIONS=”-m 0″

and add -r option to accept the logs from system


save and quit from the file :wq

-x disable DNS lookups on messages with -r option
-m 0 disabled MARK messages
-r enables logging

Once edited the file restart the syslog service

#service syslog retsrat

Follow the steps on client

Edit /etc/syslog.conf file and add a entry at end of file for server as shown below.

:Lets assume server ip as

#vi /etc/syslog.conf
user.* @

Save and quit from the file :wq

now restart the syslog service on client

#service syslog restart

Now restart the client and check log entry in server. it will generate logs in server.

Checking logs on server

#less /var/log/messages

end of this log file you can see the recent logs.

Log analysis in Linux

We have lots of default and third-party tool/commands for log analysis in Linux.
Will see some default commands which is used in Linux for log analysis.
Usage of  awk command
   We can find and replace text and will sort the output of this command.  It will search for a given pattern by us and if any text matches for that pattern then it will do the further action which given in the command.
For example, if we need to the second item from an output of the command will use in below format
#ls -l | ask '{print $2}'

Likewise will use ask command Wherever we need a specific value from a log file/output of command or text file.

YUM Configuration in RHEL7/ CentOS 7

YUM Configuration in RHEL7/ CentOS 7

We are going to see YUM Configuration in RHEL7/ CentOS 7 in this post.

In Linux mostly we are using RPM and Yum Package management.

YUM- Yellowdog Updater Modified

Yum is mostly used to install a package without fail by resolving software dependencies.

We can configure yum locally/in network

Required RPM:
1. Yum
2. Createrepo
3. deltarpm
4. python-deltarpm

Configuring YUM in RHEL7

1. Insert RHEL7 media and mount it under /mnt

#mount /dev/cdrom /mnt

2. All the RPM’s available under Packages directory. change to Package Directory and
copy all the RPM’s under any local directory which you have already created.

3. Creating local directory to use as repository

#mkdir /yumpkg

4. Copying RPM’s from media to local directory

#cd /mnt/Packages
#cp *.* /yumpkg

5. Ensure all the required RPM’s installed or not by using below commands

#rpm -qa yum
#rpm -qa createrepo

6. Generate local repository files from yumpkg and create xml file

#cp /mnt/repodata/59eXXXXXX.xml /yumpkg/comps.xml
#cd /yumpkg
#createrepo -g /yumpkg/comps.xml .
7. Create repo file

#vi /etc/yum.repos.d/yum.repo

:wq save and exit from yum.repo file

Note: For using ftp/http as repository, we must enter the concerns path in baseurl field

#yum clean all
#yum makecache

8. Now check yum by listing all available RPM’s

#yum list all

9. Than try to install any package using YUM

# yum install vsftp

Other commands of yum

#yum remove <package_name>
#yum update <package_name>
#yum search <package_name>
#yum info <package_name>
#yum list installed
#yum check-update
#yum update
yum groupinstall <package_name>

Two private IP’s not responding each other in Multicasting – Linux

Will fix Two private IP’s not responding each other in Multicasting – Linux issue in this post

Follow the below steps to fix Two private IP’s not responding each other in Multicasting – Linux:

1) Ping the private IP of node2 from node1
ping <PRV_IP_Node2>
2) Check whether the priv IP is added in /etc/hosts
cat /etc/hosts
3) Check whether the configuration is correct for the NIC device
cat etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth?
4) Check whether the routing is correct
route -n; netstat -nr
5) traceroute to the priv IP
traceroute <PRV_IP_Node2>
6) Check whether any Firewall is running
/etc/init.d/iptables status
7) Add routing for the host of PRIV_IP_Node2 & check response
8) Check the kernel parameter value of net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter
If it is 1 change it to 2
#net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2
Do the above steps in Node 2 as well.
So that both the ways we get the reply

Cloud – Open Stack

Will talk about Cloud – Open Stack in this post.
What is Cloud ?

Cloud is loaded terminal. Cloud is convenient, on demand network access to a share pool of configurable computing service. that include application/services.



Cloud types:

Private cloud
Public cloud
Hybrid cloud

What is private cloud?

Private Cloud will provide all basic benefits of public cloud like below.
Service and scalability, multi-tenancy, ability to provision machines, changing computing resources ondemand and creating multiple machines for complete jobs.
In this cloud type limited people only will able to access web based apps/websites.


We need staffing system and will be handled and managed by third party service.


To reduce implementing Rack space and VMWare by deploying private cloud.

What is Public cloud?

Public cloud is a standard cloud computing. In this method service provider have to provide all the resources like application, Hardware’s,etc.. and
its available in public over the internet.
This service could be a free a service or payable service.


Expense is low because of provider will pay for hardware,application and bandwidth.
Easy to access.
Resources usage is low.

Example: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Sun Cloud, Google AppEngine, etc…

What is Hybrid Cloud?

In hybrid cloud organizations will deploy their apps in Private and Public cloud both.
So, it’s maintained by both provider internal and external.

Dynamic or changeable applications using this module cloud. Application might be deployed in private cloud and it will access public cloud resources when the computing demand is high. To connect Private and Public cloud resources, hybrid cloud is required.

Other topics will be covered in next post

Configure network interface with multicast address in linux

In this post going to see how to configure network interface with multicast address in linux.
Multicast will send information to a group of destination simultaneously.
Most probably class D( – IP Address used in multicasting

Enable/ Disable Multicast:
Enabling Multicast:

#ifconfig eth0 multicast

once enabled check using #ifconfig eth0 command and you can find a line like below from the output of this command.


Disbaling muticast:

# ifconfig eth0 -multicast
follow the same command to check the status
# ifconfig eth0
UP BROADCAST MTU:1500  Metric:1

We could see there is no word mentioned in this output like “MULTICAST”
Check whether multicast enabled in Kernel or not.

#grep -i multi /boot/config-<Kernel version>
* CONFIG_IP_MULTICAST=y  #if “CONFIG_IP_MULTICAST” value mentioned as “n” then multicast disabled. We should make it as “y” (yes)

Configure Network interface to send muticast traffic over the network:
We should add a default gateway to multicast traffic, to the specific Network Interface. Use the below command to add default route

# route add -net netmask dev eth0

Then check the default route
#  route -n

You will get output like below
#  route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface       U     0      0        0 eth0

Command to check the multicast group in our host
# netstat -g
# cat proc/net/igmp

From the above commans will get output with multicast address for eth0 interface.
Now we configured a network interface with multicast address.

Chef server installation on linux

We are going to see Chef server installation on linux

Configuration options in Chef:


1. Standalone
2. High Availability
3. Tiered


1. Machine with RedHat server operating system with FQDN.
2. Mail agent which will help chef server to send notification.
3. Should know to work with cron jobs to schedule jobs

We are going to see Standalone chef server in this post.

In this method will use single machine for chef server installation.
1. Download “chef-server-core-<ver>” and kept under /tmp directory on a server which will run the server.
2. Install the package as root user using below commands.

#rpm -ivh chef-server-core-xxx.rpm

It will take some minutes to install it.

Execute the following server to start all services.

#chef-server-ctl reconfigure

Now we should create a user to manage the chef server

#chef-server-ctl user-create <username> <firstname> <lastname> <email> ‘Password’ –filename /path/uname.pem

Now we should create organization


#chef-server-ctl org-create short_name ‘full_organization_name’ –association_user user_name –filename ORGANIZATION-validator.pem

Download and install additional packages:
We can use Chef management console to manage the data bags, attributes, run-lists, roles, environments, and cookbooks from a web user interface.

Run below commands on chef server.

#chef-server-ctl install chef-manage
#chef-server-ctl reconfigure
#chef-manage-ctl reconfigure

We can use Chef push jobs to execute the jobs

Run the below commands on chef server.

#chef-server-ctl install opscode-push-jobs-server
#chef-server-ctl reconfigure
#opscode-push-jobs-server-ctl reconfigure

Use reporting will keep track while every client run on full infra.

Run the below commands on chef server:

#chef-server-ctl install opscode-reporting
#chef-server-ctl reconfigure
#opscode-reporting-ctl reconfigure

Update purchase for nodes:

While using more than 25 nodes, configuration should be updated by us for license.
for that, need to edit chef-server.rb file. follow the below steps to edit

#mkdir /etc/opscode && sudo touch /etc/opscode/chef-server.rb

open new chef-server.rb file
#vi /etc/opscode/chef-server.rb

append the below line on that file

#license[‘nodes’] = N (number of licensed nodes you have purchased)

save and exit from the file using :wq

run below command to update the modified changes on chef server

#chef-server-ctl reconfigure

Send mail Configuration on linux

Send mail Configuration on linux
We are going to Send mail Configuration on linux

•A linux server with ip address and hostname Server
•A linux client with ip address and hostname Client1
•A Configured DNS server on Linux server
•Updated /etc/hosts file on both linux system
•Running portmap and xinetd services
•Firewall should be off on server

Configure the DNS server before start configuration of sendmail server.

Required RPM:


#yum install sendmail
#yum install m4

Mail server program reads the /etc/mail/ When Sendmail is started or restarted with the service sendmail restart command a new file is automatically generated if has been modified.

open /etc/mail/ for editing
#vi /etc/mail/
show hidden line with : set nu option on vi command mode
By default, the following line limits sendmail access to connect local host only [line no 116]
You can allow other computers to use your sendmail server by commenting out this line.

DAEMON_OPTION(‘Port=smtp, Addr=, Name=MTA’)dnl 

comment this line with dnl keyword followed by # sign

dnl # DAEMON_OPTION(‘Port=smtp, Addr=, Name=MTA’)dnl
save this file with :wq and exit.
Now generate new file by using m4 command as shown here
#m4 /etc/mail/ > /etc/mail/
Now restart sendmail service and also set it on with chkconfig
#chkconfig sendmail on
#service sendmail restart
if sendmail service restart without any error means you have configured sendmail successfully.

Configure sendmail client side

Required RPM:

Now generate new file by using m4 command as shown here
#m4 /etc/mail/ > /etc/mail/
Now restart sendmail service and also set it on with chkconfig
#chkconfig sendmail on
#service sendmail restart

Testing of sendmail server

We will test sendmail server by sending and receiving mail in lab environment. for this we use two user one on each system.
Now create one user on each system abu on server
#useradd abu
#passwd abu
and Thagir on client system
#useradd thagir
#passwd thagir
Now send mail from user abu to thagir and from thagir to user abu and also check each other’s mail by mail command
Use full user name to send mail. For example to send mail to nikita use [email protected]
#mail [email protected]
Subjest: test mail
This is test mail
Press Ctrl+C
Now check on user abu mail box.

Apache configuration/Web server configuration in RHEL 6

We are going to see Apache configuration/Web server configuration in RHEL 6 Linux.
Remember before configuring  web server, we must configure DNS/DHCP server to receive the correct traffic.

Required RPM’s:
1. Httpd
2. Httpd-devel

Install the required RPM’s using below commands.

#yum install http*  -> command will install the required rpm package including dependency.

Now configure the IP Address with and check whether its configured properly or not. Without proper network configuration httpd service will wont start.

#ifconfig eth0
#ifconfig eth0

Now start httpd daemons and check the status

#chkconfig httpd on
#service httpd start
#service httpd status

Now configure Hosting:

We will host to apache server and create index page under the root directory.

#mkdir –p /var/www/virtual/
#vi /var/www/virtual/

Just enter some text for testing purpose in index.html
<b> this is test page</b>

Bind system ip with on /etc/hosts file. Usinf vi editor open the file and append like below.

#vi /etc/hosts

Save and exit from the file using :wq

Now locate virtual host tag and remove # on apache configuration file (/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf)

#vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Copy and paste the last seven line from the file and change as shown below.

[email protected]
DocumentRoot /var/www/cirtual/
ErrorLog logs/
CustomerLog logs/ common

Now restart the httpd service to effect the new configuration

#service httpd restart

Using links command will check the page

This is a test page
If you got out as whatever you have entered in index.html page than you have configured very well.