Linux Basic Commands: ls, mkdir, rm, cd, pwd, cat, touch

ls  command will list all files and directory.

[root@server ~]# ls Downloads ks.cfg Pictures Templates
file25 localhost Public

ls -a will list all including hidden files.

[root@server ~]# ls -a
. chandu forloop1 Music sedfile
.. .config numbers server .cshrc hst.txt output .ssh
abu data .ICEauthority output1 tcp.txt

mkdir command will help us to create a directory.

[root@server ~]# mkdir test

To delete a directory use rm -rf command with directory name.

[root@server ~]# rm -rf test

cd <dir_name> command will change to named directory.

[root@server ~]# cd data

cd ~ command will change to home directory of current user.

[root@server ~]# cd ~
[root@server ~]# pwd

cd .. command will change to parent directory of present working directory.

[root@server ~]# cd ..
[root@server /]# pwd

pwd command will print present working directory

[root@server etc]# pwd

rm  command will remove file and it will ask for user confirmation.


[root@server ~]# rm file1
rm: remove regular empty file ‘file1’? y

To delete a file without user confirmation will use  -f  option.

[root@server ~]# rm -f file1

will use vi editor, cat and touch to create files. touch command will create empty files.

[root@server ~]# touch file1

will explain about vi editor in next post, because we have multiple operation to explain in vi editor and now will see cat command operations.

creating and reading file using cat command:

After entering your content to the file, press enter to go next line and then press  ctrl+c  to save and exit from the file.

For reading a file use cat <filename> syntax like below mentioned.

[root@server ~]# cat > file2
This is a test file
[root@server ~]# cat file2
This is a test file

use the below command to append one file content to another file. In this method it will not remove the existing contents from the file and it will just copy next to the last line.

Even if we doesn’t have file3, it will create automatically and copy the file2 content to the file3

[root@server ~]# cat file2 >> file3

using below command will copy the content from two file and will paste it in a single file. to paste the content in existing file use >> symbol instead of >, it will help to paste the two files content without deleting or modifying existing content.

[root@server ~]# cat file2 file3 > file4


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